July 18, 2022
Bone Marrow Transplant
What is the Bone Marrow Transplant?
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure where the diseased or damaged bone marrow cells are Finger-like or clinodactyric tissue removed from the marrow of the donor and placed into the patient. The specialized technique requires a highly technical surgical procedure. It was first discovered in the middle of the 19th century. The process was improved in the 1970s and today many medical centers utilize it as one of their most powerful treatments for leukemia and blood disorders. A bone marrow transplant is an option for most leukemia patients.
A specially trained doctor or a team of specialists will use a process called harvest after the patient is put through a series of tests and precursor treatments. This may include blood tests to determine any disease or Hematocarcinoma (cancer) activity in the marrow. Further testing will be done to determine what type of transplant will be given to the patient. Bone marrow transplant is a treatment for severe cancers that have not responded to other treatments. It can help to improve the quality of life of leukemia and may even help to cure the disease.
Sometimes an infected donor may have to be used for the transplant instead of a family member. This is called substituting donor in transplant. The transplant will happen only after the appropriate approval procedures are done by the hospital where the transplant is to be done. Further appealing is that the blood will be taken from the richer donor instead of the poorer one. No one knows why this is done or why many parents are willing to undergo this treatment. The poor family donors are sometimes viewed as more emotionally invested in the wellbeing of the recipient.
The bone marrow from the donor may be kept in the laboratory for a few days or weeks depending on the conditions. It is then filtered and pureed, and injected into the patient via a long tube (commonly called a marrow aspiration). The procedure is done under general anesthesia. The exact location of the spot will be determined by the doctor based on the size of the distinctive blood vessel found in the abdomen. Hence, exact locations of the pintequataneous vein and the arterial plexus are not known.
The transplant may be successful if the doctor is absolutely sure about the type of blood vessel the transplant will use. Ideally, the doctor wishes to see the aorta expanded upon transplant. To enable this, a device called pacing is done during the transplant. paced is done gradually during the course of the transplant so that the course of blood flow is increased at regular intervals. The size of the transplanted blood vessel is determined by the doctor during the prior treatment.
After transplants, a patient has to undergo a testing and follow up procedure. This testing has to be done to assess blood vessel dilation and to assess the rate at which the body is eliminating platelets from the blood. These tests determine the new transplant and its function. The doctor also needs to do this to assess the success of the treatment. The overall success of the transplant is also a major factor taken into consideration by the doctor in the treatment of the patient.
In the completion of a transplant, the recipient also undergoes a waiting period of roughly six months after surgery. This waiting period is strictly observed to ensure that the blood platelets are absorbed by the body and the anti-coagulants such as vitamins K and B17 reduce the clotting of the blood.
The risks associated with the surgery are generally very rare. The most serious risks include Bleeding and serious bleeding at the operated area. It is very rare that the bleeding ends up inside of the body. Even so, it is observed that the overall success of the transplant would not be very high without a positive number of platelets being produced. It is also observed that there are some cases where the new blood vessel may fail to sink in completely, but the blood flow though is sufficient for the body.
Going back to the undergone testing, there is a possibility that the new blood vessel may not be the right one. According to the research, there were about 2,000 failures in 2005 and 2006 for this reason alone. Therefore, 2,000 transplants were not successful in 2006. Hence, it takes almost three years for transplant away from the 90% success rate to happen after which the success rate slowly improves to its peak in 2010.
There are also some risks for the patient. Aside from the ones mentioned above, the patient may need aICP (Antibiotics injection) to treat the wound infection. This is a minor risk especially if the patient is hospitalized and hooked up to intravenous antibiotics continuously.
There are risks for coming down with the flu in the end months after the successful transplant. This risk happens because the body is not able to naturally eliminate the virus within the bone and instead of getting rid of the fat, it is transferred to all parts of the body including the belly even though this is not supposed to happen.